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Impact of Education on Age at Marriage-A Thesis(research) By Joheb
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1.1 Statement of the problemYoung people are marrying at older ages than their parents did, today substantially smaller percentage of women marry before age 20 than in previous, Thus median age at marriage is rising in nearly all regions. In developed countries, the Near East Asia, and few Latin American countries, women tend to marry in their early to mid-20s. Two-thirds of more of young women in these regions do not marry until after age 20. In contrast, as two-thirds of young women in some countries of sub-Saharan Africa marry before age 20. In several of these countries high proportions of women marry at even younger ages. In almost all almost all developing countries women in rural areas are more likely to marry before age 20than women in cities. In recent decades age at marriage has risen most rapidly in Asia, the Near East, and North Africa. Changes are less striking in sub-Saharan Africa, where age at marriage remains low, and Latin America, where age at marriage rose earlier. Still, even in sub-Saharan Africa the percentage of women married by age 20 has decreased by at least 10 percentage points in 9 of the 211 countries with survey data. Young men and marriage: The age at which men marry receives less attention than women’s age at marriage. Little comparable information is available. Although young women who remain single are becoming increasingly common, single young men have long been more common in most parts of the world because in nearly all societies men marry at older ages than women and tend to be at least several years older than their wives. Thus mean age at marriage for man ranges from early to late 20s.Readiness to marry, often traditionally defined for young women by onset of menses or physical development, and may be economically defined for men. Where men are expected to demonstrate and ability to support a wife and family, they may not be considered fit for marriage until their mid to late twenties of until they have completed their schooling of an employment training program. Education and age at marriage: As formal education has become more available in developing countries, it has become a factor in delayed marriage. Women who complete at least primary education tend to marry later For example, in every sub-Saharan country, among women ages 20 to 24, the percentage who completed primary school is much higher among those who married after age 20 than among those who married earlier. In Latin America women in Brazil, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, and Paraguay who delayed marriage until after age 20 were two to three times more likely to have completed seven years of school than those who married earlier. The association also is strong in Asia and the Near East. Education remains out of reach for many, particularly for young women, because many developing countries do not provide schooling for all young people, particularly in rural areas and at the secondary level In Kano State in northern Nigeria, for example 30,000 girls complete primary school each year, but government secondary schools accommodate only one-tenth of them. Although the rate of enrollment of young women in secondary schools more than tripled in Africa and mealy doubled in Asia between 1960 and 1980, the rate of enrollment of boys reminds higher among both sexes urban adolescents are much more likely than rural adolescents it obtain more than six years of education. In most areas women who attain more formal education are more likely to delay childbearing as well as marriage, than their peers with little or mo schooling. Women who begin childbearing early really return to school-schools forbids it of childcare responsibilities prevent.
1.2 Literature Review:Marriage is regarded as a private, even sensitive subject. In many societies in Asia and if Africa, it has traditionally been unthinkable to discuss sexual relations even between husband and wife. However, changing lifestyles and HIV epidemic have begun to erode these taboos. Adolescents are demanding the right to know about, talk about, intimate matters. Creating the circumstances in which such subjects can be addressed, especially in traditional rural societies and ethnic groups where early marriage is common, is a vital per-condition for hastening its end. Advocacy is needed at all levels of society, but particularly at household and community level, to influence attitudes. The benefits of postponing marriage for wives, husbands, families and communities need to be shared with religious and community leaders, while those who exert role model influence, as well as government personal, need to be engaged. A survey conducted by the UK working group on forced marriage, for example, found that one of the main motivations of parents who force their daughters into marriage was the desire to strengthen families and protect their cultures. In fact, the evidence indicates that the opposite often occurs, with families breaking apart and children turning against their cultural background. 157 Public education campaigns must reinforce activity in schools and health facilities. Emphasis should be on the need to protect and support the adolescent period, especially by keeping girls in school. Governments should be encouraged to create a policy climate that supports later marriage, through scholarship provision, legal reform and affirmative policies and programmers on behalf of women. Efforts to improve participation of women and girls in civic and public life and to give them equal access to training and employment opportunities, can enhance their status and thereby decrease the likelihood of early marriage. National advocacy campaigns cam take various forms: Campaigning to raise the legal age of marriage; of more impotently ensuring impotently ensuring implementation of the legal age of marriage building on recommendations made at the 2000 UN Special Session of Women (Beijing+5); Promoting and effective system of registration of births, marriages and deaths; Setting up small-scale studies into the implications of early marriage and publication of the findings of such studies; Using motion and international Women’s Bays to raise awareness; via social mobilization involving women’s networks, opinion leaders at the motion level, politicians and community leaders; Working with the media and other communication channels to emphasize female rights, including equality, access to education, and freedom from exploitation and discrimination; Working with men to promote attitudinal change. International organizations, both intergovernmental and NGO can and do support such advocacy programmers through funding and technical advice in the various specialist areas. But there are still relatively few initiatives of this kind and more are needed. The CRC and CEDAW treaty bodies should monitor early marriage in systematic way, so that organizations using these treaties as programmer and policy benchmarks could draw on their observations to support policy change and enhance their own programmer. However, the lesson learned from initiates on other sensitive issues, such as FGM, is that they ate most effectively addressed at a local eve. International activity is primarily useful for coordinating, comparing and synthesizing country activates and it is important that sensitivities are respected. Heavy-handed advocacy by ousters with different outlooks and customs –even those of the same nationality can be counter productive. At present, there is a serious lack of data on all aspects of early marriage. As this Digest has underlined, the sources of information that do exist have examined early marriage in terms of demographic trends, fertility, and educational attainment. There arte as yet very few studies that have examined the practice from a human rights perspective, in rearms of rends of its impact of wives, husbands, families, of the wider society. These graphs need to be filled urgently, since data must inform polices and programmers and provide a basis for effective advocacy. Parents confronted with the kind of evidence gathered in the UK working group study cited above, for example, may begin to view the practice differently. Existing demographic data may be disaggregated and used in ways that tell us more about prevalence of early marriage. But special studies ate also needed to examine trends, extent, impacts, and effective responses. Education plays and important role in delay marriage which is now a serious problem.... According to Becker, Lands, and Michael (1977)’s study on marriage instability ``an increase in education has an ambiguous effect on the probabilities of dissolution and remarriage. The reason is the division of labor between mates (thus lowering the gain from marriage) while increasing the gain from any given division of marriage instability is the idea that more educated people are better searcher in the marriage market, forming better matches than less educated people. Becker et al. (1977), using data from SEO survey 1967, find a week negative correlation between education and mortal instability. However, Weiss and Willis (1997) using data from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972, find that schooling is important predictor of marriage stability after controlling for other variables, including income. In general a higher level of schooling for either the wife of the disband increase marriage stability. They also find that individuals ate more likely to marry if they have similar amounts of schooling. In their dataset the correlation of education attainments of the two spouses at the time of marriage is 0.57
1.3 Rationale of the study:Once early marriage was a burning question in Bangladesh but days are changing and we are becoming educated more and more. Now we are much more conscious. Recently, in our society late marriage is available especially in educated male and female. The great cause regarding this problem is getting education. But in many case it creates problem from personal life to national stage. Those who mealier face some problems like sufferings of malnutrition and immature death during delivery time. However it is also stated that early marriage leads to more family violence and divorce tendency. Again delay marriage is also a problem in assessing couples reproductive behavior, physical problems and mental satisfaction. So, we are interested to know the dimensions and nature with its consequences of this problem.
1.4 Objectives of the study:1. To know the socio-economic impact of education on age at marriage. 2. To know how decisions are taken in the family with the level of education. 3. To know the overall consequence of changes at marriage caused by education. 1.5 Hypothesis: Education leads to increase age of marriage. 1.6 Definition of Concepts: Education; It indicates some stages of achieving institutional certificate. It is of some categories as Primary, Secondary Level, Higher Secondary Level, and Graduation level. 1.7 Conceptual framework Independent variable: Education Dependent variable: Age at marriage Physical problem: There are some diseases which caused early or late marriage of male of female Family problem: It indicates those families which have lower income and remain family conflict Social security: It indicates those families which feel unsecured due to lack of son, security of the members of the family. Religious views: Religious views are those which may practice in wrong way or not. It supports early marriage of male and female, marriage of male when they get the economic ability to maintain family.
CHAPTER TWOMethodology Design: The study design of our research is survey. Data has been collected and compared among various age group respondents through percentage to test our study hypothesis. For achieving other objectives of the study data has been compiled through questionnaire and finally analyzed and interpreted through descriptive techniques. Unit of analysis: Married person. Selection of the study area (geographical): The selected villages for data collection are Guakhula and Sirajkati under the upazila of Abhaynagar in Jessore district of Bangladesh. Population: According to the population census 2011 total population of Guakhula is 14698 where 7062 is female and 7636 is male,as well as the another village Sirajkati’s population is 1405 where female is 708 and male is 697.(data collected from Thana Statistic Office,Abhaynagar,Jessore) Sampling: Stratified sampling has been used. We have taken 100 samples; first 20 from Higher Education. Level, 30 from Higher Secondary level, 25 from Secondary level and 25 from Primary level Sources of data: Marred husband and wife. Instrument of data collection: A questionnaire in Bangla has been developed and finalized through pretest and used for data collection. Method of data collection: Data have been collected through interview method. Interviewers have collected data from the respondents through face to face interview. Data collection from field: I as well as 2 students have collected data under the supervision of the Department of Sociology. It has been completed within one month . Data processing and analysis: Data have been processed, analyzed and interpreted through software like SPSS, MS Word and Excel etc.
Limitations of the study:In the first phase of limitation, I will say that it is the first study of my life. So, all terms and conditions of a research are not clear to me. Second, limitation comes from data collection because I have faced some problems in collecting data from field. A large number of respondents of my study are not well educated; also they didn’t provide the actual answers of my questions. Third, in the data editing process I have also faced problem to process the qualitative information into numerical digits. Fourth, time combination and proper monitoring is also limitation of my study. Fifth, as it is the first hand research, it is not because it was not possible to collect secondary data to make this study rich. Though I have faced problems, I have tried with all the efforts to make it precise with the help of my experienced supervision. CHAPTER THREE Factors associated with Educational Qualification and Profile of Respondants. 3.1 Introduction The purpose of the study has been investigated the interrelationship of the variables considered in the analysis. The aim of this chapter is to investigate the effect of educational qualification of the respondants on several variables of awareness about reproductive health and their statistical significant. this chapter also leads to make contingency analysis of selected variables. The contingency analysis investigates the degree of association together the dependency criteria between the selected variables. Examination of association is performed by means of contingency table. 3.2 Contingency Analysis Contingency analysis investigates the degree of association together the dependency criterion between the selected variables. Examine of association is performed by means of contingency table which has been discussed on it. 3.2.1 Factors Associated with Educational Qualification Education qualification among currently married women of reproductive age in Bangladesh, with particular focus on the context to which socio-economic and demographic factors exert independent influence on educational qualification of married women. It appears from the present study that, while knowledge of family planning among married women have been conveyed to the majority of couples in Bangladesh the current rate of contraception use and literacy among married women is still low. Literacy rate, rate of contraception use and reproductive health facilities are increasing and improving. Reproductive behaviors are determined by some demographic and socio-economic variables. During investigate the inter relationship between educational qualification of married women and their reproductive health status; we also took into the demographic and socio-economic characteristics, for the sake of our analysis. Demographic, socio-economic, factors and other cultural activities depend on educational qualification of respondents. Educations enlighten in human’s mind and buildup consciousness and awareness about reproductive. So educational qualification is the most important component that regulates socio-economic, and other cultural behavior those are associated with ‘Age at Marriage. Profile of the Respondents 3. 1 Age of Respondents Table 3. 1- Distribution of Age of Respondents by frequency and percentage Age Group Frequency Percent 20-29 40 40.0 30-39 33 33.0 40-49 18 18.0 50-59 5 5.0 60+ 4 4.0 Total 100 100.0 From the above Table 3.1 it is seen that 40 percent respondent’s age ranges from 20 to 29 years. The second highest is shown in the 30-39 age group. In this way 18 percent, 5 percent and 4 percent are found in the 40-49, 50-59 and more than 60years respectively. 3.2-Occupation of Respondents Table 3.2 Distribution of Occupation of Respondents by frequency and percentage Occupation Frequency Percent Service Holder 17 17.0 Teaching 5 5.0 Farming 5 5.0 Business 20 20.0 Housewife 46 46.0 Student 2 2.0 Others 5 5.0 Total 100 100.0 From the above Table 3.2 it is seen that the occupation of respondents are service holder 17 percent ,teaching 5 percent ,farming 5 percent, business 20 percent ,housewife 46 percent, student 2 percent, and others 5 percent. 3.3 Occupation of Husband/Wife Table 3.3 - Distribution of Occupation of Husband/Wife by frequency and percentage Occupation Frequency Percent Service Holder 29 29.0 Teaching 6 6.0 Farming 5 5.0 business 24 24.0 Housewife 30 30.0 Others 6 6.0 Total 100 100.0 From the above Table 3.3 it is seen that the occupation of husband and the highest is 30 percent and it is housewife. The lowest is 5 percent and it is farming, others 6 percent, teaching 6 percent, and business 24 percent. 3.4 Types of family Table3.4-Distribution of Types of family by frequency and percentage Types Of family Frequency Percent Nuclear 52 52.0 Extended 48 48.0 Total 100 100.0 From the Table 3.4 it is seen that the number of nuclear family is high and it is 52 percent and the number of extended family is 48 percent. 3. 5 Monthly Income Table 3. 5- Distribution of Monthly Income by frequency and percentage Monthly Income Frequency Percent 1000-9000 75 75.0 10000-19000 20 20.0 20000-30000 5 5.0 Total 100 100.0 From the table 3.5 it is clear that maximum people’s monthly income tk.1000-9000 and it is 75 percent. Only 5 percent people can earn 20000-30000 taka per month and 20 percent people’s monthly income is 10000-19000. 3.6 Taking First Child after marriage Table 3.6 Distribution of Taking First Child after marriage by frequency and percentage Year Frequency Percent No answer 6 6.0 1yr 33 33.0 2yrs 42 42.0 3yts 16 16.0 4yrs 3 3.0 Total 100 100.0 Table 3.6 it is seen that maximum people got their first child after two years of marriage and it is 42 percent.33 percent people got their first child 1 yr after marriage. Only 3 percent people got their first child after 4 years of marriage.16 percent people got their first child after 3 years marriage. CHAPTER FOUR Marriage and its Dimension 4.1 Age at First Marriage Table 4.1 Distribution of Age at First Marriage by frequency and percentage Age at First Marriage Frequency Percent <18 33 33.0 18-24 48 48.0 25-30 11 11.0 31+ 8 8.0 Total 100 100.0 In Table 4.1 it seen that 33 percent peoples got married under the age of 18,.maximum people’s age of first marriage 18-24 and it is 48 percent., only 8 percent people’s age of first marriage 31+. 4.2 Studentship at the time of First Marriage Table4.2 Distribution of Studentship at the time of First Marriage by frequency and percentage Age at First Marriage Frequency Percent Yes 23 23.0 No 77 77.0 Total 100 100.0 From the table 2 it is seen that only 23 percent people were student when they got first marriage and 77 percent people were none. 4.3 Selection of marriage Table 4.3-Distribution of Selection of Marriage by frequency and percentage Decision taken Frequency Percent Willingness of husband/wife but not parents 8 8.0 Self choose then family arranged 33 33.0 Family decided and then their choose 46 46.0 Family choose but you not 13 13.0 Total 100 100.0 From the above Table 4.3 it is seen that 8 percent people got marriage in willingness of husband\wife but not parents. Maximum people got marriage system is first family decided and then their choose and it in 46 percent number of self choose then family arrange are 33 percent. And family choose but they not choose are 13 percent. CHAPTER FIVE Nature of Impact of Marriage 5.1 Age of Getting First Child Table5.1- Distribution of Age of Getting First Child by frequency and percentage Age of Getting First Child Frequency Percent <18 19 19.0 18-24 47 47.0 25-34 30 30.0 35+ 4 4.0 Total 100 100.0 By the description of the above table it is seen that 19 percent of the respondents get their first child bellow 18 years ,The highest range of the percentage label is 18-24,30 percent of the respondent got their first child on 25-34.And above 35 is the lowest in percentage. 5.2 Relation of Marital Permanency with getting Child Table 5.2 Distribution of Relation of Marital Permanency with getting Child by frequency and percentage Opinion Frequency Percent yes 77 77.0 No 23 23.0 Total 100 100.0 The Table 5.2 mentioned that according to the respondents 77 percent believe that getting child make marital life permanent. But 23 percent is not agree with that. 5.3 Taking First child for Permanency of Marital Life Table 5.3 -Distribution of Relation of Marital Permanency with getting Child by frequency and percentage Opinion Frequency Percent Yes 56 56.0 No 44 44.0 Total 100 100.0 The Table denoted that the opinion of 56 percent respondents ts that they got their first child for the permanency of marital life but 44 percent respondents said it is not related to that more over most of them said that it’s all about the existence of their generation. 5.4 Education Delayed Marriage Table 5.4 Distribution of Relation of Marital Permanency with getting Child by frequency and percentage Opinion Frequency Percent Yes 78 78.0 No 22 22.0 Total 100 100.0 The Table5.4 portrayed that 78 percent respondent think that education delayed the marriage. But 22 percent respondents think people do not take late response to marriage due to education. 5.5 Age of Marriage according to Law for Male Table 5.5 - Distribution of Age of Marriage according to Law for Male by frequency and percentage Age of Marriage according to Law Frequency Percent 20 8 8.0 21 86 86.0 22 6 6.0 Total 100 100.0 The Table5.5 shows that 8 and 6 percent of the respondents knows that respectively 20,22 is the age of marriage of male by Bangladeshi law. But maximum 86 percent of the respondents are sure about the age of marriage by Bangladeshi law. 5.6 Age of Marriage according to Law for Female Table 5.6 Distribution of Age of Marriage according to Law for Female by frequency and percentage Law Age of Marriage for Female Frequency Percent 18 97 97.0 19 2 2.0 22 1 1.0 Total 100 100.0 According to the Table 5.6 percent respondents are known the fixed age of female for marriage by Bangladeshi Law. However 2 percent know that it is 19 and 1 percent it is 22. CHAPTER SIX Opinion Regarding Marriage 6.1 Perfect Age of Marriage for Male Table 6.1 Distribution of Perfect Age of Marriage for Male by frequency and percentage Perfect Age Frequency Percent 20-25 69 69.0 26-30 20 20.0 31+ 11 11.0 Total 100 100.0 By the Above Table6.1 it seen that 69 percent people think that for male the perfect age of marriage is in the label of 20-25,the medium percentage gone that the age limit is from 26-30,and the 11 percent of the respondents said that the perfect age should be greater than 31 years. 6.2 Perfect Age of Marriage for Female Table 6.2Distribution of Perfect Age of Marriage for Female by frequency and percentage Perfect Age Frequency Percent 18-20 53 53.0 21-24 32 32.0 25-29 15 15.0 Total 100 100.0 From the above Table it is obvious that 53 percent of the respondents think that the perfect age of marriage for female is 18-20,then 32 percent of the respondents think the age should be 21-24 and 15 percent choose the age 25-29 as perfect. Table 6.3-Distant of Age between Husband and Wife Table 6.3 Distribution of Distant of Age between Husband and Wife by frequency and percentage Opinion Frequency Percent Yes 84 84.0 No 16 16.0 Total 100 100.0 From the above Table the opinion of the respondents is that 84 of them think that there should be distant between the age of husband and wife. And another 16 percent think that no it is not mandatory to have distant between the age of husband and wife. 6.4 Distant of Year between the Age of Husband and Wife Table 6.4 - Distribution of Distant of Age between Husband and Wife by frequency and percentage Opinions Frequency Percent No comment 12 12.0 1yr 2 2.0 2yers 18 18.0 3yers 23 23.0 4yers 25 25.0 Others 20 20.0 Total 100 100.0 Describing the upper table it can be said that the opinion of the respondents goes that the distant between the age of husband and wife is not a matter of question so they refuse answer. More over 2,18,23,25,20 percent respondents gradually mentioned that the distance should be1yr,2yrs,3yr,s4yrs and 20 percent respondents answered different. 6.5Marriage with classmate Table 6.5 Distribution of Marriage with classmate by frequency and percentage Opinion Frequency Percent Yes 29 29.0 No 71 71.0 Total 100 100.0 The above table denoted that 71 percent respondents oppose the marriage with classmate and 29 percent answered it can be hold with the classmate. 6.6 Problem of Late Marriage for Male Table 6.6 Distribution of Problem of Late Marriage for Male by frequency and percentage Opinion Frequency Percent Yes 43 43.0 No 57 57.0 Total 100 100.0 The Table refers that 57 percent respondent is not positive with the problem of Late marriage for male and 43 percent agreed with it. 6.7Problem of Late Marriage for Female Table 6.7 Distribution of Problem of Late Marriage for Female by frequency and percentage Opinion Frequency Percent Yes 95 95.0 No 5 5.0 Total 100 100.0 From the upper Table it is seen that 95 percent respondent strongly given their opinion that there is problem of late marriage for female but 5 percent do not support that. 6.8Preparation to be married Table 6.8 Distribution of Preparation to be married by frequency and percentage Age Frequency Percent <18 29 29.0 18-24 56 56.0 25-29 8 8.0 30+ 7 7.0 Total 100 100.0 The Table portrayed that 29 percent respondents were prepared for marriage at the age of bellow 18 yrs. The largest 56 percent were prepared for marriage at the age label 18-24, 8 percent were ready at 25-29, and 7 percent greater than 31yrs. 6.9 Relationship between Age of Marriage and Dowry Table 6.9 Distribution of Relationship between Age of Marriage and Dowry by frequency and percentage Opinion Frequency Percent Yes 47 47.0 No 53 53.0 Total 100 100.0 The above table shows that 53 percent of the respondents agreed that there is no relationship between the age of marriage and dowry. And 47 percent believe that there is a relationship between it. 6.10 Relationship between Age of Marriage and Family violence Table 6.10 Distribution of Relationship between Age of Marriage and Family violence by frequency and percentage Opinion Frequency Percent Yes 67 67.0 No 33 33.0 Total 100 100.0 Above Table mentioned that 67 percent respondents think that there is a relationship between age of marriage and violence and another 33 percent did not agree with it. 6.11 Relationship between Age of Marriage and Permanency of marital Life 6.11 Distribution of Relationship between Age of Marriage and Permanency of marital Life by frequency and percentage Opinion Frequency Percent Yes 68 68.0 No 32 32.0 Total 100 100.0 The Table explains that 68 percent respondents think that there is a relationship between age of marriage and permanency of marital life. CHAPTER SEVEN Relation of age at marriage and some social factors 7.1 Opinions on the Relation of Marriage at Age to Dowry & Education level The influence of groom's education on net dowry is as one would expect: educated grooms are worth more in the marriage market, as is indicated by the significant positive coefficient in the hedonic function for groom's education. The relationship between groom's age at marriage and dowry is also significant and reveals that the older the groom the larger the dowry. Bergstrom and Bagnoli (1993) outline a model that predicts why on average women marry older men. They argue that in a society in which the economic roles of are more varied than the roles of , the relative desirability of fe-s as marriage partners may become evident at an earlier age than in the case of . Thus, in equilibrium, who regard their prospects as unusually good choose to wait until their economic success is revealed before choosing a bride. Their argument can be applied to the relationship between the age of the groom and the size of the dowry. Older men could have been economically more successful and, being a better match, they received large. Table: 7.1-Educational Qualification and dowry Educational Qualification Opinion on the relation between age of marriage and dowry Total Yes No Primary 15 10 25 60.0% 40.0% 100.0% SSC 8 17 25 32.0% 68.0% 100.0% HSC 10 20 30 33.3% 66.7% 100.0% Graduate 14 6 20 70.0% 30.0% 100.0% Total 47 53 100 47.0% 53.0% 100.0% Table shows that 60% respondents of primary level said that there is a relation between age at marriage and demands of dowry, whereas 40% respondents of the same level said that there is no relation between age at marriage and demands of dowry. Again, 32% respondents of SSC level said that there is a relation between age at marriage and demands of dowry, whereas only 68% respondents of the same level said that there is no relation between age at marriage and demands of dowry. In the HSC level 66.7% respondents said in favor of negation but 33.3% respondents said ‘yes’ in the same level. In the Graduation level, 70% respondents said that there is a relation between age at marriage and demands of dowry but 30% respondents said ‘no’ in the same level. 7.2 Opinions on the Relation of Marriage at Age to Violence & Education level Table:7.2-Educational Qualification and family Violence Educational Qualification Relation of Marriage at Age to Violence Total Yes No Primary 22 3 25 88.0% 12.0% 100.0% SSC 12 13 25 48.0% 52.0% 100.0% HSC 20 10 30 66.7% 33.3% 100.0% Graduate 13 7 20 65.0% 35.0% 100.0% Total 67 33 100 67.0% 33.0% 100.0% Table shows that 88% respondents of primary level have admitted the relation of age at marriage to violence .Whereas 12% of the same education level do not support the relation of age at marriage to violence. Again 48% respondents of both SSC and 66.7% HSC level have mentioned the relation of age at marriage to family violence respectively. 65 % respondents of Graduation level have given their positive views on the relation of age at marriage to family violence, whereas 35% of the same education level has given their negative views on the relation of age at marriage to family violence. So, from our study we can see that the highest (65%) positive views on the relation of age at marriage to family violence is seen among the respondents of graduation level and the highest (52%) negative views on the relation of age at marriage to family violence are seen among the respondents of SSC level. So, there is a positive relation between education level and age at marriage 7.3 Opinions on Relation of marriage at age to its permanence and Education level o f respondents Table: 7.3 Education level and Opinions on age at marriage to its permanence Educational Qualification Opinions on age at marriage and its permanence Total Yes No Primary 14 11 25 56.0% 44.0% 100.0% SSC 17 8 25 68.0% 32.0% 100.0% HSC 20 10 30 66.7% 33.3% 100.0% Graduate 17 3 20 85.0% 15.0% 100.0% Total 68 32 100 68.0% 32.0% 100.0% Table shows that 68% respondents of SSC level have admitted the relation of age at marriage to its permanence .Whereas 320% of the same education level do not support the relation of age at marriage to its permanence. Again 66.7% -respondents of HSC level have mentioned the relation of age at marriage to its permanence. On the other hand, 33.3% of the same education level do not support the relation of age at marriage to its permanence.85% respondents of Graduation level have given their positive views on the relation of age at marriage to its permanence, Whereas 15% of the same education level have given their negative views on the relation of age at marriage to its permanence. So, from our study we can see that the highest (85%) positive view on the relation of age at marriage to its permanence is seen among the respondents of Graduation level. 7.4 Educational Qualification and distance between the age of husband and wife Table:7.4 Educational Qualification and distance between the age of husband and wife Educational Qualification distance of age between husband and wife Total No comments 1yr 2yrs 3yrs 4yrs 4+ yrs Primary 3 0 3 5 6 8 25 12.0% .0% 12.0% 20.0% 24.0% 32.0% 100.0% SSC 6 1 12 5 1 0 25 24.0% 4.0% 48.0% 20.0% 4.0% .0% 100.0% HSC 3 1 0 6 8 12 30 10.0% 3.3% .0% 20.0% 26.7% 40.0% 100.0% Graduate 0 0 3 7 10 0 20 .0% .0% 15.0% 35.0% 50.0% .0% 100.0% Total 12 2 18 23 25 20 100 12.0% 2.0% 18.0% 23.0% 25.0% 20.0% 100.0% Table represents that 32% respondent of primary level mentioned the distance of age at marriage would be more than 4 years, whereas 48% respondent of SSC level mentioned the distance of age at marriage would be just for 2 years. Again 40% respondent of HSC level mentioned the distance of age at marriage for more than 4 years, whereas 50% respondent of Graduation level mentioned the distance of age at marriage for 4 years. 7.5 Educational Qualification and Distant of age between husband and wife Table: 7.5 Educational Qualification and Distant of age between husband and wife Educational Qualification Distant of age between husband and wife Total Yes No Primary 23 2 25 92.0% 8.0% 100.0% SSC 15 10 25 60.0% 40.0% 100.0% HSC 26 4 30 86.7% 13.3% 100.0% Graduate 20 0 20 100.0% .0% 100.0% Total 84 16 100 84.0% 16.0% 100.0% The table represents that that among 100 respondents , 92% respondents of primary mentioned positive views on the distance of age at marriage whereas 60% respondents of SSC level mentioned positive views on the distance of age at marriage and all the respondents of the Graduation level asserted their positive views on the distance of age at marriage 7.6Educational Qualification and Perfect age at marriage (Female) Table:7.6 Educational Qualification and Perfect age at marriage (Female) Educational Qualification Perfect age at marriage(Female) Total 18-20 yrs 21-24 yrs 25-29 yrs Primary 12 13 0 25 48.0% 52.0% .0% 100.0% SSC 24 1 0 25 96.0% 4.0% .0% 100.0% HSC 2 13 15 30 6.7% 43.3% 50.0% 100.0% Graduate 15 5 0 20 75.0% 25.0% .0% 100.0% Total 53 32 15 100 53.0% 32.0% 15.0% 100.0% From the table we can see that 52% respondents of primary and SSC level mentioned the ideal age for female from 21 to 24years, whereas 96% respondents of SSC level mentioned the ideal age for female is from 18 to 20 years and half of the respondents of HSC level voted for 25 to 29 years of perfect age of marriage. Again, 75% Graduates have mentioned the ideal age for female is from 18 to 20 years.. So with the increase of education level, selection of ideal age for boys for boys also varies. 7.7Educational Qualification and Perfect age at marriage (male) Table:7.7 Educational Qualification and Perfect age at marriage (male) Educational Qualification Perfect age at marriage (male) Total 20-25yrs 26-30 yrs 31+ yrs Primary 24 1 0 25 96.0% 4.0% .0% 100.0% SSC 24 0 1 25 96.0% .0% 4.0% 100.0% HSC 1 19 10 30 3.3% 63.3% 33.3% 100.0% Graduate 20 0 0 20 100.0% .0% .0% 100.0% Total 69 20 11 100 69.0% 20.0% 11.0% 100.0% From the table we can see that 96% respondents of both primary and SSC level mentioned the ideal age for male from 20 to 25 years, whereas 63.3% respondents of HSC level mentioned the ideal age for male is from 26 to 30 years. Again, all the Graduates have mentioned the ideal age for male is from 20 to 25years.. So with the increase of education level, selection of ideal age for boys for boys also varies. 7.8 Educational Qualification and delayed the marriage Table: 7.8-Educational Qualification and delayed the marriage Educational Qualification Opinion on the delay marriage Total Yes No Primary 21 4 25 84.0% 16.0% 100.0% SSC 24 1 25 96.0% 4.0% 100.0% HSC 18 12 30 60.0% 40.0% 100.0% Graduate 15 5 20 75.0% 25.0% 100.0% Total 78 22 100 78.0% 22.0% 100.0% Table shows that more than 84% respondents of primary level,96% oh SSC level, 60% of HSC level and 75% of Graduation level have provided positive views in assessing the role of education on late marriage. On the other hand 40% respondents of HSC level have said 'NO' to enumerate the role of education on late marriage. So, from our study it is seen that education has a significant role on late marriage. 7.9Educational Qualification and Decision for getting child Table:7.9- Educational Qualification and Decision for getting child Educational Qualification Decision for getting child Total Husband Wife Parents Other Primary 8 2 6 9 25 32.0% 8.0% 24.0% 36.0% 100.0% SSC 4 5 15 1 25 16.0% 20.0% 60.0% 4.0% 100.0% HSC 8 6 5 11 30 26.7% 20.0% 16.7% 36.7% 100.0% Graduate 8 4 6 2 20 40.0% 20.0% 30.0% 10.0% 100.0% Total 28 17 32 23 100 28.0% 17.0% 32.0% 23.0% 100.0% Table shows that 60% respondents of SSC level took first child decided by parents, 20% by wife, 16% by husband. In the context of HSC level, 26.7% respondents took first child decided by husband, 20% by wife and only a few percent was taken by parents to have child. In the Graduation level 40% was taken by husband, 20% by wife and 30% by parents So, from the above analysis we can say that most of the respondents take first child decided by husband and in terms of education it is seen in the Higher education level. It can also be remarked that there is no relation between education level and decision for taking first child. 7.10 Educational Qualification and Age of getting 1st child. Table: 7.10-Educational Qualification and Age of getting 1st child. Educational Qualification Age of getting 1st child. Total <18 yrs 18-24 yrs 25-34 yrs 35+ yrs Primary 17 7 1 0 25 68.0% 28.0% 4.0% .0% 100.0% SSC 2 18 5 0 25 8.0% 72.0% 20.0% .0% 100.0% HSC 0 13 13 4 30 .0% 43.3% 43.3% 13.3% 100.0% Graduate 0 9 11 0 20 .0% 45.0% 55.0% .0% 100.0% Total 19 47 30 4 100 19.0% 47.0% 30.0% 4.0% 100.0% Table shows that 68% respondents of primary level take first child in 18 years of old. In the context of SSC level, 72% respondents take first child within 18 to 24 years, 43.3% respondent of HSC level took their first child within 18 to 347 years and 55% respondent of Graduation level took their first child within 25 to 34 years. So, from the above analysis we can say that most of the respondents took first child from18 to 24 years of old. 7.11 Educational Qualification and Age at first marriage Table: 7.11-Educational Qualification and Age at first marriage Educational Qualification Age at first marriage Total <18 yrs 18-24 yrs 25-30 yrs 31+ yrs Primary 19 6 0 0 25 76.0% 24.0% .0% .0% 100.0% SSC 10 14 0 1 25 40.0% 56.0% .0% 4.0% 100.0% HSC 3 12 8 7 30 10.0% 40.0% 26.7% 23.3% 100.0% Graduate 1 16 3 0 20 5.0% 80.0% 15.0% .0% 100.0% Total 33 48 11 8 100 33.0% 48.0% 11.0% 8.0% 100.0% From the table we cam say that 76% respondents of primary level were prepared to get married under 18 years of old, 56% of SSC level were within 18 to 24 years of old, 40% of HSC were 18 to 24 years and 80% respondents of the graduation level prepared to get married within the same range.
Summary and FindingsMost of the respondents of this study have not continued their study after marriage and it is seen mostly among female respondents. In the phase of continuation of education after marriage, males are forwarded. Marriage decision has also been portrayed in this study and it is found that most of the marriage are completed through the selection of family members along with own agreement and the rate of this selection is nearly same for both males and females. But it is not pursued in the case of higher educated respondents. The age group of 26-30 has been mentioned more times by males in the case of selection of Ideal age of marriage for boys and most of the females of this study have selected the age group of 26-30. Opinions on the distance of age at marriage are nearly same for both males and females and negation on the opinions on the distance of age at marriage has been enumerated very insignificantly. In the case of preparation to get married, females are forwarded to getting married than that of males and it has also been found that with the increase of education level, the rate of getting married for females is low. To assess the nature of impact of late marriage on males, it is found that both males and females have mentioned its negative impact and positive impact of late marriage on males has been assessed negatively with the increase of education level. To assess the nature of impact of late marriage on family, it is found that both males females have mentioned its positive impactand positive impact of late marriage on family has been assessed by females positively with the increase of females' education level Decision for taking first child is also an indicator of consciousness because it is seen in many studies in the cases of uneducated couple; only husbands take decisions for taking first child. But in this study, a large number of wives have a contribution in making decision for taking children .Marital bond is influenced by various social relations. In this study, we have surveyed on the role of children to make marital bond strong. It is found that a great number of respondents have given their positive view on it. In the case of on the distance of age at marriage and education level it is seen that most of the respondents said that there should be a distance of age at marriage between husband and wife and 0-3 years distance is mentioned more times. Family violence is a common phenomenon over the world. We have asked our respondents if there is any relationship between age at marriage and family violence. We conclude that three is not so strong relationship between age at marriage and family violence with the level of education. In the case of dowry, it is also seen that the relation that prevails between age at marriage and demands of dowry is not so strong. Nature of marital permanence has also been discussed in this study in which most of the respondents said that there is a close relationship between education level and age at marriage to its permanence.
CONCLUSIONFinally it can be concluded that education, as it brings some changes in human mind, has a great impact on human life. To some extent, it teaches human beings how to behave with all aspects of life even from selection of marriage to behaviors after marriage. Education, of course, influences a man to use contraceptives as it is a necessity in the context of human welfare. It also enhances sharing tendencies between husband and wife regarding use of contraceptives, time of conception, and taking of first child after marriage. Education also plays an important role in assessing the distance of age at marriage between husband and wife, good and bad impact of both late and early marriage on boys, girls, family and society .To sum up the conclusion it can be said that not a single spheres of life is beyond the impact of education.
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Questioners For Data collectionAppendix Questionnaire (used for data collection) 1. Name: 2. Age: 3. Education qualification: 4. Age of husband/wife: 5. Educational qualification of husband/wife: 6. What is your occupation? I. Service holder II. Teaching III. Agriculture IV. Business V. House wife VI. Student VII. Others 7. What is your husband/ wife’s occupation- I. Service holder II. Teaching III. Agriculture IV. Business V. House wife VI. Student VII. Others 8. Age at first marriage..............................age. A) Do you think it is high/low/perfect 9. When you got married, were you student? I) Yes II) No 10. If yes mention the level I) Not enrolled in Education II) Primary III) SSC IV) HSC V) Graduate 11. Do you continued study after marriage I) Yes II) No 12. If yes how long I) Not notrolled II) Yrs III) 2Yrs IV) 3Yrs V) 4 Yrs VI) Others 13. If no, stopped which level I) Primary II) SSC III) HSC IV) Graduate 14. How has your marriage occurred? I) Husband and wife’s agreement but not guardians. II) Own choice then arranged by family. III) Selection through family member along with own agreements. IV) Family selection but respondents not agreement. 15. What is your family type? I) Nuclear II) Joint 16. Your monthly income- 17. First conception after marriage I) 1Yr II) 2Yrs III) 3Yrs IV) 4Yrs 18. Decision for taking 1st child- I) Husband II) Wife III) Parents IV) Parents in law V) Others 19. Age of 1st child...................... 20. Do you getting first child I) Yes II) No 21. Did you get first child for a permanency your marital life. I) Yes II) No 22. Do you think education delayed the marriage. I) Yes II) No 23. By Bangladesh law age of marriage for female....................................... 24. Perfect age of marriage for male................................... 25. Perfect age of marriage for female.................................... 26. Distant of age between husband of wife. I) Yes II) No 27. What should the distant between the age of husband and wife. I) 1Yr II) 2Yrs III) 3Yrs IV) 4Yrs V) Others 28. Marriage with classmates I) Yes II) No 29. Problem of late marriage for male I) Yes II) No 30. Problem of late marriage for female I) 1Yr II) 2Yrs III) 3Yrs IV) 4Yrs V) Others 31. On which age were prepared for marriage....................................... 32. On which age your parents tried to get you married................................ 33. Was it possible I) Yes II) No 34. Do you think there is relation between age of marriage and dowry. I) Yes II) No 35. Do you think there is relation between marriage and family violence I) Yes II) No 36. Do you think there is relation between marriage and permanency of marital life. I) Yes II) No 37. We should be higher educated and solvent then should get married. I) Yes II) No
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